[Isishwankathelo] Unyango lobushushu imibuzo engama-30 kunye neempendulo

Ubuzile 30 abalawuli

zeziphi iindlela ezisetyenziswa cormmonly ukucima kwaye uchaze umgaqo wokukhetha iindlela ezahlukeneyo zokucima?

Indlela yokucima:

1. Ukucima ulwelo olunye--inkqubo yokupholisa kwindawo yokucima, ulwelo olunye olucima uxinzelelo lwe-microstructure kunye noxinzelelo lwe-thermal lulukhulu ngokwentelekiso, ukucima i-deformation inkulu.

2. Ukucima ulwelo oluphindwe kabini - injongo: ukupholisa ngokukhawuleza phakathi kwe-650 ℃ ~ Ms, ukuze i-V> Vc, ipholile ngokucothayo ngaphantsi kweNkskz ukunciphisa uxinzelelo lwezicubu. Intsimbi yeCarbon: amanzi phambi kwe-oyile.

3. Ukucima i-fractional -- i-workpiece ikhutshwe kwaye ihlale kwiqondo lokushisa elithile ukwenzela ukuba ukushisa kwangaphakathi nangaphandle kwendawo yokusebenza kuhambelana, kwaye emva koko inkqubo yokupholisa umoya.Ukucima i-Fractional yinguqu ye-M yesigaba sokupholisa umoya, kwaye uxinzelelo lwangaphakathi luncinci.

4. Ukucima i-Isothermal - ibhekisela kwinguqu ye-bainite eyenzekayo kwingingqi ye-bainite ye-isothermal, kunye nokunciphisa uxinzelelo lwangaphakathi kunye ne-deformation encinci. kunokwenzeka ukuphepha ukucima deformation kunye nokuqhekeka.

 

Yintoni umahluko phakathi kokubekwa komphunga wekhemikhali kunye nokubekwa ngokwemeko yemozulu ngokwemisebenzi yazo engundoqo?

Ukubekwa kwimichiza yemeteorological ikakhulu yindlela yeCVD.I-reaction medium equlathe izinto zokugquma i-vaporized kwiqondo lobushushu elisezantsi, kwaye emva koko ithunyelwe kwigumbi lokusabela lobushushu obuphezulu ukunxibelelana nomphezulu womsebenzi ukuvelisa ukusabela kweekhemikhali zobushushu obuphezulu.I-alloy okanye isinyithi kunye neekhompawundi zayo zihlanjululwa kwaye zifakwe kwindawo yokusebenza ukuze zenze iingubo.

Iimpawu eziphambili zendlela yeCVD:

1. Unokufaka iindidi ze-crystalline okanye i-amorphous inorganic film material.

2. Ukucoceka okuphezulu kunye namandla adibeneyo adibeneyo abophezelayo.

3. Umaleko oshinyeneyo wentlenga onemingxuma embalwa.

4. Ukufana okuhle, izixhobo ezilula kunye nenkqubo.

5. Ubushushu obuphezulu bokusabela.

Isicelo: ukulungiselela iintlobo ezahlukeneyo zeefilimu kumphezulu wezinto ezifana nentsimbi kunye nentsimbi, i-alloy eqinile, isinyithi esingenayo i-ferrous kunye ne-inorganic non-metal, ngokukodwa ifilimu ye-insulator, ifilimu ye-semiconductor, ifilimu yomqhubi kunye nefilimu ye-superconductor kunye nefilimu yokumelana nokubola.

I-Physical and meteorological deposition: inkqubo apho izinto zegesi zifakwe ngokuthe ngqo kumphezulu we-workpiece kwiifilimu eziqinileyo, ezaziwa ngokuba yi-PVD method.Kukho iindlela ezintathu ezisisiseko, ezizezi, i-vacuum evaporation, i-sputtering kunye ne-ion plating.Isicelo: nxiba i-coat resistant, ubushushu. Ukwaleka okuxhathisayo, ukugquma okuxhathisayo, ukuthambisa, ukutyabeka okusebenzayo kokuhombisa.


I-microstructure kunye ne-macroscopic morphoiogy ye-fatigue fracture ichazwe

I-Microscopic: iipateni ze-strip eziqatshelwe phantsi kwe-electron microscopic microscope, eyaziwa ngokuba ngamabhondi okudinwa okanye ukudinwa striations.Umcu wokudinwa uneentlobo ezimbini ze-ductile kunye ne-brittle, umcu wokudinwa unesithuba esithile, phantsi kweemeko ezithile, umgca ngamnye uhambelana nomjikelo woxinzelelo.

I-Macroscopic: kwiimeko ezininzi, ineempawu zokuqhekeka kwe-brittle ngaphandle kwe-macroscopic deformation ebonakalayo kwiliso lenyama.Ukuqhekeka okuqhelekileyo okudinwa kubandakanya indawo yomthombo wokuqhekeka, indawo yokwandisa ukuqhekeka kunye nendawo yokugqibela yokwaphuka okwethutyana.Indawo yomthombo wokudinwa ayimbi kakhulu, ngamanye amaxesha isipili esikhanyayo, indawo yokusasaza kokuqhekeka lunxweme okanye ipateni yeqokobhe, eminye yemithombo yokudinwa enezithuba ezingalinganiyo ziyahambelana. I-arcs yeziko lesangqa.I-morphology ye-microscopic yendawo yokuphuka kwesikhashana inqunywe yimowudi yomthwalo weempawu kunye nobukhulu bezinto eziphathekayo, kwaye ingaba yi-dimple okanye i-quasi-dissociation, i-dissociation intergranular fracture okanye i-mixed shape.

 

Chaza iintlobo ezintathu zeeprodlems ezinqabileyo ezihlala zisenzeka ekucinyweni kokufudumeza kwaye uzame ukuhlalutya oonobangela bazo.

1 .ukuqhekeka: ubushushu bobushushu buphezulu kakhulu kwaye iqondo lobushushu alilingani;Ukhetho olungafanelekanga lokucima okuphakathi kunye nobushushu;Ubushushu abufike ngexesha kwaye alanelanga;Isixhobo sinokuqina okuphezulu, ulwahlulo lwamacandelo, iziphene kunye nokubandakanywa okugqithisileyo;Amalungu akakho ngokufanelekileyo. yenzelwe.

2. Ubunzima bomphezulu obungalinganiyo: ubume obungeyomfuneko bokungeniswa; ukufudumeza okungalinganiyo; ukupholisa okungalinganiyo; Ulungelelwaniso lwemathiriyeli engekho mgangathweni (isakhiwo esinebhanti, i-partial decarbonization.

3. Ukunyibilika komphezulu: ulwakhiwo lwe-inductor alunangqiqo;Amalungu akhona kwiikona ezibukhali, imingxuma, embi, njl.;Ixesha lokufudumeza lide kakhulu, kwaye umphezulu womsebenzi uneentanda.

 

zithini iimpawu zenkqubo entsha yokucaphuka okuphezulu kweHSS ezantsi?

Thatha i-W18Cr4V umzekelo, kutheni ingcono kuneepropati eziqhelekileyo zoomatshini abanomsindo? Intsimbi ye-W18Cr4V ifudunyezwa kwaye yacinywa ku-1275 ℃ +320 ℃ * 1h + 540 ℃ ukuya ku-560 ℃ * 1h * 2 amaxesha okufudumala.

Xa kuthelekiswa nentsimbi eqhelekileyo enesantya esiphezulu esinesantya esiphezulu, iiCarbides zeM2C ziba nemvula ngakumbi, kwaye iM2C, V4C kunye neFe3C carbides inosasazo olukhulu kunye nokufana okungcono, kwaye malunga ne-5% ukuya kwi-7% ye-bainite ekhoyo, eyona nto ibalulekileyo kwi-microstructure factor kubushushu obuphezulu obunesantya esiphezulu. ukusebenza kwentsimbi kungcono kunentsimbi eqhelekileyo enomsindo ngesantya esiphezulu.

Zeziphi iintlobo zomoya olawulekayo ezidla ngokusetyenziswa ?Chaza iimpawu kunye nokusetyenziswa kweatmosfera nganye.

Kukho umoya we-endothermic, umoya wokuthontsiza, umoya womzimba othe ngqo, omnye umoya olawulekayo (umoya womatshini wenitrogen, umoya wokubola kwe-ammonia, umoya we-exothermic).

1. I-Endothermic atmosphere yirhasi ekrwada exutywe nomoya kumlinganiselo othile, ngokusebenzisa i-catalyst kubushushu obuphezulu, i-reaction eveliswa ikakhulu iqulethe i-CO, H2, N2 kunye ne-trace CO2, O2 kunye ne-H2O emoyeni, ngenxa yokuba impendulo yokufunxa ubushushu, ebizwa ngokuba yi-CO2, i-O2 kunye ne-H2O. umoya we-endothermic okanye i-RX gas.Isetyenziselwa i-carburizing kunye ne-carbonitriding.

2. Kwi-atmosphere ye-drip, i-methanol iqondiswe ngokuthe ngqo kwisithando somlilo ukuba siqhekeke, kwaye i-carrier ene-CO kunye ne-H2 yenziwe, kwaye i-arhente ecebileyo yongezwa kwi-carburizing; I-carbonitriding yobushushu obuphantsi, ukukhusela ukufudumeza ukucima okukhanyayo, njl.

3. I-arhente yokungena efana negesi yendalo kunye nomoya oxutywe kumlinganiselo othile ngokuthe ngqo kwiziko, kwiqondo lokushisa eliphezulu 900 ℃ reaction eyenziwe ngokuthe ngqo kwi-carburizing atmosphere.Igesi yokubola i-ammonia isetyenziselwa igesi ye-nitriding carrier, intsimbi okanye i-metal non-ferrous ubushushu obuphantsi. Umkhathi wokukhusela ukufudumeza.I-nitrogen-esekelwe kwi-atmosphere ye-carbon steel ephezulu okanye i-bearing iron protection effect ilungile.I-atmospheric exothermic isetyenziselwa unyango lobushushu obuqaqambileyo lwentsimbi ephantsi yekhabhoni, ubhedu okanye i-decarburization annealing ye-malleable cast iron.

Yintoni injongo yokucinywa kwe-isothermal ye-nodular cast iron ?Ziziphi izinto ezicinyiweyo ze-isothermal kunye ne-isothermal?

Injongo: Iimpawu ezilungileyo zoomatshini kunye nokuphazamiseka okuncinci kwe-iron ductile inokufumaneka ngokucinywa kwe-isothermal kwindawo yenguqu ye-bainite emva kwe-austenitizing.Iqondo lokushisa le-Isothermal: i-260 ~ 300℃ isakhiwo se-bainite; Isakhiwo esiphezulu se-bainite sifunyenwe kwi-350 ~ 400 ℃.

Chaza ngokufutshane ezona mpawu ziphambili zonyango lwemichiza yobushushu obuqhelekileyo (i-carburizing, i-nitriding, i-carburizing kunye ne-nitrocarburizing), ubume kunye neempawu zokusebenza emva konyango lobushushu, zeziphi izixhobo okanye iinxalenye ezisetyenziswa kakhulu?

I-Carburizing: ubukhulu becala kumphezulu we-workpiece kwinkqubo ye-athomu ye-carbon, i-martensite yokufudumala komhlaba, i-A eseleyo kunye ne-carbide, injongo yeziko kukuphucula umxholo wekhabhoni, kunye nobunzima obuphezulu kunye nokumelana nokunxiba okuphezulu, iziko line-A. amandla athile kunye nokuqina okuphezulu, ukwenzela ukuba ithwale impembelelo enkulu kunye nengxabano, intsimbi ephantsi yekhabhoni efana ne-20CrMnTi, i-gear kunye ne-piston pin esetyenziswa ngokuqhelekileyo.

I-Nitriding: kumphezulu wokungena kwe-athomu ye-nitrogen, bubulukhuni bomphezulu, amandla okumelana nokudinwa kunye nokumelana nokugqwala kunye nokuphucula ubulukhuni be-thermal, umphezulu we-nitride, intliziyo ye-sorbsite evuthayo, i-nitriding yegesi, i-nitriding yolwelo, esetyenziswa ngokuqhelekileyo i-38CrMoAlA. , 18CrNiW.

I-Carbonitriding: i-carbonitriding iqondo lokushisa eliphantsi, isantya esikhawulezayo, i-deformation encinci yamacandelo.I-microstructure ye-surface ilungile inaliti ene-martensite + i-granular carbon kunye ne-nitrogen compound Fe3 (C, N) + i-austenite encinci eseleyo.Inokumelana nokunxiba okuphezulu, amandla okukhathala kunye amandla acinezelayo, kwaye inokumelana nokugqwala okuthile.Isetyenziswa rhoqo kwiigiya zomthwalo onzima kunye ophakathi ezenziwe ngentsimbi ephantsi nephakathi yekhabhoni.

I-Nitrocarburizing: inkqubo ye-nitrocarburizing iyakhawuleza, ubulukhuni bomphezulu bungaphantsi kancinane kune-nitriding, kodwa ukuxhathisa ukukhathala kulungile.Isetyenziselwa ubukhulu becala ukubumba i-machining kunye nomthwalo omncinci wempembelelo, ukuxhathisa ukunxiba okuphezulu, umda wokudinwa kunye ne-deformation encinci. njengentsimbi ye-carbon structural, i-alloy structural iron, i-alloy tool steel, intsimbi engwevu, intsimbi ephoswe ngamaqhuqhuva kunye nomgubo wesinyithi, inokuba yi-nitrocarburized

 

Chaza ngokufutshane imigaqo yoyilo lwenkqubo yonyango lokushisa

1. Ubuchwephesha obuphezulu.

2. Inkqubo ithembekile, isengqiqweni kwaye inokwenzeka.

3. Uqoqosho lwenkqubo.

4. Ukhuseleko lwenkqubo.

5. Zama ukusebenzisa izixhobo zenkqubo kunye neenkqubo eziphezulu ze-mechanization kunye ne-automation.

 

Ziziphi iingxaki ekufuneka ziqwalaselwe kuyilo lokulungiswa kwenkqubo yokunyanga ubushushu?

1. Uxhulumaniso phakathi kobuchwephesha obubandayo kunye nobushushu bokusebenza kufuneka buqwalaselwe ngokupheleleyo, kwaye ilungiselelo lenkqubo yonyango lokushisa kufuneka libe nengqiqo.

2. Yamkela iteknoloji entsha kangangoko kunokwenzeka, chaza ngokufutshane inkqubo yonyango lokushisa, unciphise umjikelezo wemveliso.Ngaphantsi kwemeko yokuqinisekisa isakhiwo esifunekayo kunye nokusebenza kweengxenye, zama ukwenza iinkqubo ezahlukeneyo okanye iinkqubo zobuchwepheshe zidibene kunye.

3. Ngamanye amaxesha ukwenzela ukuba kuphuculwe umgangatho wemveliso kunye nokwandisa ubomi benkonzo ye-workpiece, kuyimfuneko ukwandisa inkqubo yokunyanga ukushisa.

 

Chaza ngokufutshane imigaqo ekufuneka ilandelwe kuyilo lwe-inductor

1. Umgama wokudibanisa phakathi kwe-inductor kunye ne-workpiece kufuneka ibe kufutshane kangangoko kunokwenzeka.

2. I-workpiece eshushu eludongeni lwangaphandle lwekhoyili kufuneka iqhutywe yimagnethi ye-flux.

3. Uyilo lwenzwa yokusebenza kunye neekona ezibukhali ukuphepha umphumo obukhali.

4. I-offset phenomenon yemigca yemagnethi kufuneka igwenywe.

5. Uyilo lwenzwa kufuneka uzame ukuhlangabezana nomsebenzi unokujika xa ushushu.

Yiyiphi imigaqo esisiseko abamele bayiqwalasele xa bekhetha izinto zokwakha?

1. Khetha izinto eziphathekayo ngokweemeko zokusebenza zamacandelo, kubandakanywa uhlobo lomthwalo kunye nobukhulu, iimeko zokusingqongileyo kunye neendlela eziphambili zokungaphumeleli;

2. Ukuqwalasela isakhiwo, imilo, ubungakanani kunye nezinye izinto zamacandelo, izinto eziphathekayo ezinobunzima obuhle zinokucutshungulwa ngokucima ioli okanye ukucima i-soluble medium quenching medium for lula ukucima ukuphazamiseka kunye nokuqhekeka;

3. Qonda isakhiwo kunye neempawu zezixhobo emva kokunyanga ubushushu.Amanye amabakala ensimbi aphuhliswe kwiindlela ezahlukeneyo zokunyanga ukushisa aya kuba nesakhiwo esingcono kunye neempawu emva kokunyanga;

4. Kwisiseko sokuqinisekisa ukusebenza kwenkonzo kunye nobomi beengxenye, iinkqubo zonyango lokushisa kufuneka zenziwe lula kangangoko kunokwenzeka, ngakumbi izinto ezinokugcinwa.

Ziziphi iimpawu zenkqubo ekufuneka ziqwalaselwe xa ukhetha izinto zetsimbi kwiindawo zokuvelisa?

1. Ukusebenza komdlalo.

2. Ukusebenza komatshini woxinzelelo.

3. Ukusebenza komatshini.

4. Ukusebenza kwe-welding.

5. Ukusebenza kwenkqubo yokushisa ukushisa.

Iyintoni inkqubo esisiseko yonyango lobushushu bekhemikhali yentsimbi?Zeziphi iindlela eziphambili zokukhawulezisa unyango lokuphilisa imichiza ?Ziziphi iingenelo zetekhnoloji yolawulo lwecandelwana lokungcwatywa kwe-carburizing?Phantsi kweemeko eziqhelekileyo, yintoni isakhiwo somphezulu kunye nentsimbi ephantsi yekhabhoni emva kokungcwatywa kunye nokucima?

Ukubola, i-adsorption, ukusasazwa kwamanyathelo amathathu.Ukusetyenziswa kwendlela yokulawula icandelo, unyango lokungeniswa kwekhompawundi, ukusasazwa kobushushu obuphezulu, ukusetyenziswa kwezinto ezintsha ukukhawulezisa inkqubo yokusasazwa, ukungeniswa kweekhemikhali, ukungeniswa komzimba; Thintela i-oxidation yomphezulu we-workpiece, enceda ukusasaza, ukuze iinkqubo ezintathu zilungelelaniswe ngokupheleleyo, ukunciphisa umphezulu womsebenzi ukwenza inkqubo yekhabhoni emnyama, ukukhawulezisa inkqubo yokungcwatywa kwe-carburizing, ukuqinisekisa ukuba umaleko wenguqu ubanzi kwaye unobunono obungakumbi bokungeniswa komgangatho; Ukusuka kumphezulu ukuya embindini, iodolo hypereutectoid, eutectoid, hyperhypoeutectoid, primordial hypoeutectoid.

Zingaphi iintlobo zokusilela kokunxiba ezikhoyo?Indlela yokuthintela zonke iintlobo zokunxiba kunye nokusilela kwamalungu?

Uhlobo lokunxiba:

Ukunxiba okuncamathelayo, ukunxitywa kwe-abrasive, ukunxiba umhlwa, ukudinwa kokunxibelelana.

Iindlela zokuthintela:

Ukunxiba okuncamathelayo, ukhetho olufanelekileyo lwezinto ezimbini zokukhuhlana; Ukusebenzisa unyango olungaphezulu ukunciphisa i-friction coefficient okanye ukuphucula ubulukhuni bomphezulu; Nciphisa uxinzelelo olucinezelayo loqhagamshelwano; Nciphisa uburhabaxa bomphezulu. isixhobo sokuhluza i-oyile yokuthambisa ukuze sisuse i-abrasive, kodwa kunye nokhetho olufanelekileyo lwemathiriyeli yobulukhuni obuphezulu;Ubulukhuni bomphezulu bezinto ezimbini zokukhuhlana buphuculwe ngonyango lobushushu obungaphezulu kunye nokuqina komsebenzi ongaphezulu. Izinto ezixhathisayo kwi-corrosion; ukhuseleko lwe-electrochemical; Uxinzelelo loxinzelelo loxinzelelo lwe-tensile lunokwehliswa xa i-corrosion inhibitor yongezwa.I-annealing ye-Stress annealing;Khetha izixhobo ezingakhathaleliyo kuxinzelelo lwe-corrosion; Guqula imeko ephakathi ukucoceka kwezinto, ukunciphisa ukubandakanywa;Phuculaawona mandla angundoqo kunye nokuqina kwamalungu; Nciphisa uburhabaxa bomphezulu wamalungu;

Yintoni i-granular bainite?

Yenziwe nge-ferrite enkulu (equiaxed) kunye nommandla wekhabhoni ephezulu A.

Chaza uhlobo, injongo kunye nokusetyenziswa kokuhlehla kwebhola

Ukuhlehla kwebhola eqhelekileyo: ukwandisa ubulukhuni, uphucule ubuchule, ukunciphisa ukucima ukuphazamiseka kokuqhekeka.

I-Isothermal ball regression: isetyenziselwa i-carbon tool steels ephezulu, i-alloy tool steels.

Umjikelo webhola umva: isetyenziselwa intsimbi yentsimbi yekhabhoni, intsimbi yesixhobo sealloyi.

Ubushushu bokucima intsimbi ye-hypoeutectoid ihlala ingaphezulu kwe-Ac3, kodwa kutheni ukucima ubushushu bobushushu bentsimbi ye-hypereutectoid yi-AC1-ACM?Zama ukuyihlalutya ngokwethiyori

1. Ngenxa yomxholo ophantsi wensimbi ye-hypoeutectoid, isakhiwo sokuqala se-P + F, ukuba iqondo lokushisa lokucima lingaphantsi kwe-Ac3, kuya kuba ne-F engancibilikisiweyo, kwaye kuya kubakho indawo ethambileyo emva kokucima. Kwinsimbi ye-eutectoid, ukuba iqondo lokushisa iphezulu kakhulu, ininzi kakhulu i-K 'yinyibilika, yandisa ubungakanani bephepha le-M, kulula ukwenza i-deformation kunye nokuqhekeka, ukwandisa inani le-A', i-K kakhulu 'yinyibilike, kunye nokunciphisa ukunyanzeliswa kwentsimbi.

2. Ukushisa kwensimbi ye-eutectoid kuphezulu kakhulu, ukuthambekela kwe-oxidation kunye ne-decarbonization kwanda, ukwenzela ukuba ukubunjwa kwendawo yensimbi kungabi yinto efanayo, i-Ms level ihluke, okubangelwa ukucima ukucima.

3. Ukukhetha ubushushu bokucima i-Ac1 + (30-50℃) inokugcina i-K enganyibilikiyo yokuphucula ukuxhathisa ukunxiba, ukunciphisa umxholo wekhabhoni we-matrix, kunye nokwandisa amandla eplastiki kunye nokuqina kwentsimbi.

Inkqubo entsha yobushushu obuphantsi kunye nobushushu obuphezulu bentsimbi yesantya esiphezulu iya kwandisa ubomi beendawo ezicinyiweyo zentsimbi yesantya esiphezulu. Ngaba ihlalutywa ngokwethiyori?

Imvula efanayo ye-ε kunye ne-M3C yenza imvula ye-M2C kunye ne-MC ifane ngakumbi kuluhlu lwesibini lobushushu obuqinileyo, olukhuthaza ukuguqulwa kwe-austenite ethile eseleyo ibe yi-bainite kwaye iphucula amandla kunye nokuqina.

Bonisa ezi ntlobo zengxubevange zilandelayo

I-ZL104: i-aluminium ephosiweyo, i-MB2: i-alloy ye-magnesium ephosakeleyo, i-ZM3: i-magnesium ephosiweyo, i-TA4: i-alloy ye-titanium, i-H68: ubhedu, i-QSN4-3: i-tin brass, i-QBe2: i-beryllium yobhedu, i-TB2: i-β titanium alloy.

Yintoni ukuqina kokwaphuka?Ungagweba njani ukuba inxalenye inoxinzelelo oluphantsi loqhekeko olunokonakala ngokokuqina kwe-K1C, uxinzelelo lokusebenza kunye neradiyasi yokuqhekeka?

Ukuqina kokwaphuka sisalathiso sepropathi esibonisa ukukwazi kwemathiriyeli ukuxhathisa ukwaphuka.Ukuba i-K1 & gt;K1C, uxinezeleko oluphantsi lophuka lophuka.

Iimpawu zenqanaba lenguqu yentsimbi engwevu xa kuthelekiswa nentsimbi:

1) Intsimbi yokuphosa yi-fe-C-Si ternary alloy, kunye nokuguqulwa kwe-eutectoid kwenzeka kuluhlu olubanzi lobushushu, apho kukho i-ferrite + austenite + graphite;

I-2) Inkqubo ye-graphitization yensimbi etyhidiweyo kulula ukuyiqhuba, kwaye i-matrix ye-ferrite, i-matrix ye-pearlite kunye ne-ferrite + i-pearlite ye-iron cast ifunyenwe ngokulawula inkqubo;

I-3) Umxholo wekhabhoni we-A kunye neemveliso zenguqu zinokuhlengahlengiswa kwaye zilawulwe kuluhlu olubonakalayo ngokulawula ukufudumala kweqondo lokushisa, ukufudumala kunye neemeko zokupholisa;

4) Xa kuthelekiswa nentsimbi, umgama wokusasazwa kwee-athomu zekhabhoni ude;

I-5) Ukunyangwa kokushisa kwentsimbi yentsimbi ayikwazi ukutshintsha imilo kunye nokusabalalisa kwegraphite, kodwa kunokutshintsha kuphela isakhiwo esihlangeneyo kunye neempawu.

 

Inkqubo esisiseko yokwakheka kwe-A xa intsimbi ifudunyezwa ?Izinto ezichaphazela ubungakanani beenkozo zika-A?

Inkqubo yokuqulunqa: ukubunjwa kwe-crystal nucleus, ukukhula kwe-A grain, ukuchithwa kwe-cementite eseleyo, i-homogenization ye-A; Izinto: ukushisa ukushisa, ukubamba ixesha, isantya sokufudumala, ukubunjwa kwensimbi, isakhiwo sokuqala.

Zeziphi iindlela eziphambili zokukhawulezisa unyango lwe-hest chemical ?

Iindlela: indlela yokulawulwa kwecandelwana, unyango lokungeniswa kwe-compound, ukusabalalisa kweqondo lokushisa eliphezulu, ukusebenzisa izinto ezintsha ukukhawulezisa inkqubo yokusabalalisa, ukungena kweekhemikhali, ukungena emzimbeni.

Zeziphi iindlela ezintathu ezisisiseko zokudlulisa ubushushu?

Imowudi yokuhambisa ubushushu: ukuhanjiswa kobushushu, ukuhanjiswa kobushushu, ukuhanjiswa kobushushu bemitha (i-vacuum furnace ngaphezulu kwe-700 ℃ kukudluliselwa kobushushu bemitha).

Yintoni inyama emnyama kwi-carbonitriding?Bunokuthintelwa njani?

Umbutho omnyama ubhekisa kumabala amnyama, amabhanti amnyama kunye neeweb ezimnyama. Ukuze kuthintelwe ukubonakala kwezicubu ezimnyama, umxholo we-nitrogen okwinqanaba elivumelekileyo akufanele ube phezulu ngokwaneleyo, ngokubanzi ngaphezulu kwe-0.5% uqhelene nezicubu ezimnyama; umxholo kwi-permeable layer akufanele ube phantsi kakhulu, ngaphandle koko kulula ukwenza i-tortenite network.Ukuze uthintele inethiwekhi ye-tortenite, isixa sokongeza se-ammonia kufuneka sibe siphakathi.Ukuba umxholo we-ammonia uphezulu kakhulu kwaye indawo yombethe yesithando somlilo iyancipha, izicubu ezimnyama ziya kubonakala.

Ukuze kuthintelwe ukubonakala kwenethiwekhi ye-torstenite, ubushushu bokucima ubushushu bunokunyuswa ngokufanelekileyo okanye indawo yokupholisa enobuchule obunamandla bokupholisa bunokusetyenziswa.Xa ubunzulu bezicubu ezimnyama bungaphantsi kwe-0.02mm, i-peening yadubula isetyenziselwa ukuyilungisa.

Chaza ngokufutshane umgaqo wokhetho wokufudumeza ukucima iiparamitha zenkqubo yokucima

Indlela yokufudumeza: ukucima ukufudumeza kwe-induction kuneendlela ezimbini zokucima ukufudumeza kwangaxeshanye kunye nokufudumeza ukucima okuqhubekayo, kuxhomekeke kwiimeko zezixhobo kunye nohlobo lwamacandelo. Ngokubanzi inkulu kune-1.5 kW/cm2.Amalungu eshafti amade, iindawo zokucima umngxuma ongaphakathi, imodyuli ephakathi enamazinyo abanzi, iinxalenye zemicu zithatha ukucima okuqhubekayo;Igiya enkulu ithatha izinyo elinye ngokuqhubekayo.

Iiparamitha zokufudumeza:

1. Ubushushu bokufudumala: Ngenxa yesantya sokufudumeza ngokukhawuleza, ubushushu bokucima yi-30-50 ℃ ephezulu kunonyango oluqhelekileyo lobushushu ukwenzela ukuba ukuguqulwa kwezicubu kugcwele;

2. Ixesha lokufudumala: ngokweemfuno zobugcisa, izixhobo, imilo, ubukhulu, ukuphindaphinda kwangoku, amandla athile kunye nezinye izinto.

Indlela yokupholisa yokucima kunye nendawo yokucima: Indlela yokucima yokupholisa yokucima ukufudumeza ikholisa ukusebenzisa ukupholisa isitshizi kunye nokupholisa ngokuhlasela.

Yeyiphi imiqathango yokunciphisa umzimba?

Ukufudumala kufuneka kube ngexesha elifanelekileyo, emva kokucima iinxalenye ngaphakathi kwe-4h i-tempering.Iindlela eziqhelekileyo zokunciphisa umzimba, i-furnace tempering kunye ne-induction tempering.

Ukulungiswa kweeparamitha zombane zokufudumeza induction

Injongo kukwenza umsebenzi wonikezelo lwamandla aphezulu kunye naphakathi kwimo ye-resonant, ukuze izixhobo zidlale ngokufanelekileyo.

1. Lungisa iiparamitha zombane zokufudumeza okuphezulu.Ngaphantsi kwemeko ye-7-8kV yomthwalo ophantsi kwamandla ombane, lungisa ukudibanisa kunye nempendulo kwindawo ye-handwheel ukwenza umlinganiselo wesango langoku kunye ne-anode yangoku 1: 5-1:10, kwaye emva koko unyuse i-anode yombane kwi-voltage yenkonzo, ulungelelanise ngakumbi iiparamitha zombane, ukuze i-voltage yeshaneli ilungelelaniswe kwixabiso elifunekayo, owona mdlalo ubalaseleyo.

2. Lungisa iiparamitha zombane zokufudumeza kwamaxesha aphakathi, khetha umlinganiselo ochanekileyo wokucima i-transformer kunye ne-capacitance ngokobungakanani beengxenye, ubude bendawo yokuqina kunye nesakhiwo se-inductor, ukuze isebenze kwi-resonance state.

Zeziphi izixhobo zokupholisa eziqhelekileyo ezisetyenziswayo?

Amanzi, amanzi etyuwa, amanzi e-alkali, ioyile yomatshini, i-saltpeter, i-polyvinyl alcohol, isisombululo se-trinitrate, i-agent yokucima amanzi, i-oyile ekhethekileyo yokucima, njl.

Zama ukuhlalutya izinto ezichaphazela ukuqina kwentsimbi

1. Impembelelo yomxholo wekhabhoni: ngokunyuka komxholo wekhabhoni kwintsimbi ye-hypoeutectoid, ukuzinza kwe-A kuyanda kwaye i-C curve ihamba ngokufanelekileyo; Ngokunyuka komxholo wekhabhoni kunye ne-carbides enganyibilikiyo kwi-eutectoid steel, ukuzinza kwe-A kuyancipha kwaye igophe lika-C litshintsha ngasekunene.

2. Impembelelo ye-alloying elements: Ngaphandle kwe-Co, zonke izinto zetsimbi ezikwimeko yesisombululo esiluqilima zihamba ngqo kwi-C curve.

I-3.Iqondo lokushisa kunye nexesha lokubamba: Ukuphakama kweqondo lokushisa ngu-A, ixesha elide lokubamba, i-carbide iyachithwa ngokupheleleyo, i-coarser i-A grain, kwaye i-curve ye-C ihamba ngasekunene.

4. Impembelelo yezicubu zangaphambili: I-thinner ye-original tissue, kulula ukufumana i-uniform A, ukwenzela ukuba i-C CURVE ye-C ihamba ngokufanelekileyo kwaye i-Ms ihamba phantsi.

5. Impembelelo yoxinzelelo kunye noxinzelelo lubangela ukuba ijika le-C lihambe ngasekhohlo.


Ixesha lokuposa: Sep-15-2021